St. Patrick’s Day: Consistent Hangovers May Put You at Greater Risk for a Stroke

St. Patrick’s day is a holiday that incorporates elements of Irish culture but it is celebrated globally by people of different backgrounds. Every year, St. Patrick’s day falls on the 17th of March which means that many will be dressed in green, drinking beer at their local pub this Sunday. After a full day of drinking, you may wake up with a hangover the next morning.

Hangover is a non-medical term used to describe the physical effects that occur after excessive consumption of alcohol. Veisalgia is the medical term for hangover and symptoms of veisalgia include:

  1. Headaches

  2. Fatigue

  3. Dizziness

  4. Nausea

  5. Vomiting  

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Blood Types: Is Protection From Cognitive Decline In Your Blood?

Blood is a fluid in the body that carries oxygen and nutrients to cells while helping with the removal of carbon dioxide. All of us have it in our body and though everyone’s blood may look the same, your blood is actually categorized into one of four types: A, B, AB, and O. Knowing your blood type is important for blood transfusion procedures, but as of recent, your blood type may reveal your chances of cognitive decline.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Grief: Changes in Your Life Reflect the Changes in Your Brain

What comes to mind when you hear the word grief? Perhaps you think of the death of a loved one or destruction caused by a natural disaster. These are major events that take a toll on your life but grief does not have to be caused by a major loss. Grieving can occur when you are adjusting to change, whether that be your kids leaving for college or retiring from your job of 30 years. These changes may not be as obvious of a loss but they impact your life in ways that you wouldn’t expect. So while your life changes, your brain is undergoing neurological changes too.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

In Pursuit of Focused Attention

As humans, we all use different types of attention to attend to both internal and external stimuli in our everyday lives. In psychology, attention is used to describe the concentration of awareness on phenomenon to the exclusion of other stimuli. Concentration of awareness can either be automatic or controlled, depending on the type of processing employed to elicit attention.

To better understand how attention actually works, attention has often been compared to a highlighter. In a sea of text, a highlighter is used to make certain portions of text stand out more than the rest of the text. Similarly in a sea of competing stimuli, attention causes us to selectively focus our interest, whilst ignoring competing information and stimuli, on certain specifics in our environment. However, not all attention is the same. Mateer’s Hierarchical Attention Model differentiates between attention, categorizing it as divided, sustained, selective or alternating in nature. Although there are various types of attention, today’s post will concentrate specifically on breaking down one type, namely Focused Attention.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Love: Is it in the Air or in Your Brain?

“Love is in the air” is a popular saying but should it be changed to love is in the brain? The feeling or emotion of love has been studied for years, yet it is the least understood behaviour. In fact, if you were to search up love in the Oxford dictionary, you’ll find that that there are several definitions for it. Some of them include:

  1. An intense feeling of deep affection.

  2. A strong feeling of affection and sexual attraction for someone.

  3. Affectionate greetings conveyed to someone on one's behalf.

  4. A formula for ending an affectionate letter.

  5. A personified figure of love, often represented as Cupid.

While we may not completely understand love, what we we do know is that love and lust are neurobiologically correlated. From an evolutionary perspective, this makes sense since lust helps produce offspring and love helps to care for the offspring.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Myelination: The Neurobiological Underpinnings of Personality

The neurological basis of personality has always been a bit of a mystery but researchers are now one step closer to understanding it. Using advanced brain scan technology, researchers were able to estimate myelination levels in different brain areas.

So what exactly is myelin? Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve fibres in your brain. It speeds up information processing and it’s usually thicker in cortex areas related to perception and movement. The process of coating nerve fibres, also known as axons, with myelin is called myelination. Myelination helps protect and conduct electrical signals in the neuron.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Personality and Academic Performance: The Underlying Connections

Each person has a different combination of traits within each dimension that make up their personality. Based on these combinations, people tend to behave in certain ways that are in line with characteristics of each dimension. In addition to playing a role in influencing one’s behaviour, recent research out of The University of Texas at Austin suggests that these personality dimensions may also influence a child’s performance in math and reading in ways we might not expect.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Test Anxiety: Can Emotional Regulation Improve Your Grades?

It is common to feel anxious before taking a test and while some experience the harmless “butterflies in stomach” feeling, others are severely impacted. Statistics show that low-income students are less likely to complete four years of high school science in comparison to high-income students. This prevents students from low-income families to major in science at a post-secondary level which means that they are unable to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM).  

When looking at a midwestern high school, 40% of students from low-income families were assured to fail their biology course. They had internalized feelings of inadequacy which lead to high levels of anxiety prior to taking a test/exam. As a result of low self-esteem and anxiety, these students received poor grades.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Inherited Trauma: It Did Not Begin With You

If you were to look up the word trauma on WebMD, you would find “a serious physical injury.” While that may be the medical definition, trauma is much more than that. Trauma is an emotional response to a traumatic event and according to the Canadian Psychological Association, an event is considered traumatic if an individual “experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. The person’s response must have also involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror.” But how do you explain your trauma symptoms if you have not personally gone through a traumatic event?

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Double the Dopamine: Why It’s So Hard to Control Your Cravings

Indulging in your favourite food is common during the holiday season and while your new year's resolution may have been to eat more healthy, a neurotransmitter called dopamine could be preventing you from doing that.

Dopamine is a pleasure chemical that plays a role in identifying and reinforcing rewarding/pleasurable experiences. Researchers at Max Planck Institute in Germany decided to use a positron-emission tomography (PET) technique to monitor the peaks of dopamine release while people ate palatable (pleasant tasting) and non-palatable (unpleasant tasting) food. This PET technique also helped identify the brain regions associated with the releases.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Childhood Poverty: Long Term Impact on the Developing Brain

Brain development is complex and varies from person to person. There are several factors that affect development and socioeconomic status may be one of them. Recently, U.S. researchers discovered that the brain areas responsible for language, learning, and emotional development were far more complex in children whose parents had a higher level of education and/or worked professional jobs compared to those with parents working manual labour jobs and/or having lower levels of education.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Social Media: An Addiction That Impacts Your Mental Health

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat. These are just a few of the most popular social media platforms used in Canada. According to the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA), 74 percent of Canadians spend a minimum of 3-4 hours online per day. While this may not seem so bad, the effects of social media on your mental health suggest otherwise.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Cause and Treatment

You may know or have described someone as narcissistic but did you know that narcissism is not just a character trait but an actual personality disorder?

Personality disorders are characterized as behavioural patterns or inner experiences that vary from the norm of the individual’s culture. These patterns are stable and have a long duration which can lead to distress or impairment in work, social environments and more.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Stress Vulnerability: Is it Harder to Cope with Stress Later in the Day?

We have all experienced stress, some days more than others, but did you know that you may be more vulnerable to stress at certain times of the day? A recent study conducted by medical physiologist, Dr. Yujiro Yamanaka and colleagues, found that the body’s central nervous system reacts less to physiological stress and releases fewer stress hormones in the evening when compared to the morning.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Psychologists vs. Psychiatrists: Do You Know The Difference?

In recent years, advocacy and awareness for mental health has increased significantly. The importance of seeking mental health services has been emphasized now more than ever yet, many people do not know whether they should see a psychiatrist or a psychologist. In fact, the two professions are often thought of as the same when in reality, there are distinct differences.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

The Neurological Effects of Marijuana: What You Should Know Before Consuming Cannabis

On October 17th 2018, the sale and consumption of recreational marijuana was officially legalized in Canada. According to Statistics Canada, 42.5% of Canadians ages 15+ have consumed cannabis at least once in their lifetime. So while this is great news for many, it is important to understand what cannabis is and the neurological effects that it may have on you. Marijuana, commonly known as weed and/or pot, is a psychoactive drug derived from cannabis plants. Cannabis can be inhaled through smoke and vapors, ingested through edibles and capsules, sprayed and dissolved under the tongue (sublingual), and topically through bath salts, lotions, and oils. The three main types of cannabis plants include Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, and Cannabis Ruderalis. Along with physical differences, the effects of each type of plant varies.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Mindfulness: Do Mindful People Feel Less Pain?

Have you ever wondered why some people feel pain more intensely than others? Are you one of those people who rarely ever feel pain? Well, researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine in North Carolina have found that mindfulness may be the reason behind this. According to the Canadian Medical Association, mindfulness is described as being able to attend to an experience such as a conversation, a clinical procedure or an administrative activity without being distracted, hurried or reactive in a way that compromises our understanding, decision making, caring and skillful actions. In simpler terms, it means to pay attention to the present moment without having a highly emotional reaction.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Living with Regret: An Inevitable Reality

The saying that life is a roller coaster ride is far from just a good analogy. In life, there are many highs and lows and usually, the lows are what we look back on. Whether it was a missed job opportunity, words you wish you could take back, or the “one that got away”, we always seem to have regrets.

Since regret is considered a universal emotion, researchers have taken a keen interest in understanding it. A recent study suggests that regret may be associated with an individual’s self-concept. Self-concept is defined as the individual's belief about himself or herself, including the person's attributes and who and what the self is (Baumeister, 1999). To grasp what your self-concept is, you may ask “do I have a clear understanding of who I am?” “Am I living up to the person I want to be?” and “am I living my life in a way where my responsibilities are being fulfilled?”

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Stimulating the Caudate Nucleus: Why the Glass May Seem Half Empty to You

Have you ever felt like your judgement was being clouded by pessimism? Have you ever wondered why you focus on the downside of a situation rather than the upside? Well, researchers at MIT have recently found that stimulating a region of the brain known as the caudate nucleus, likely has an impact on your mood and the decisions that you make.

The caudate nucleus is located deep in the brain on both the right and left hemispheres. It is known to play a significant role in storing and processing memories but in recent years, it has been connected to emotional decision-making. Previously, a neural circuit was found to affect a type of decision-making known as approach-avoidance conflict. Approach-avoidance conflict is described as an element of stress where a situation/goal may seem appealing and unappealing at the same time. Therefore, there are both positive and negative feelings involved which ultimately becomes a conflict for a person making a decision.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Sleep Deprivation: Reasons Why You Might Have Social Withdrawal

Human beings are social beings. Regardless of whether you consider yourself an extrovert or an introvert, we as humans need social interaction to live a healthy life. In fact, studies have found that lack of social belonging may put you at risk of developing depression and even cardiovascular disease. In the past, there have been studies which indicate that people who are socially isolated do not get enough and/or good quality of sleep. However, the real question is, can an individual develop social withdrawal due to sleep loss?

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

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