What is Post Concussion Syndrome?

Post Concussion Syndrome

Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries which usually occur after a motor vehicle accident, sports injury, physical fight or trips/falls. Individuals who have experienced this type of injury often report a number of physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. These symptoms are referred to as post concussion symptoms (PCS). PCS are categorized into two different groups; circuit (physical) malfunction and metabolic (chemical) malfunction.  

The most commonly reported PCS for circuit malfunctions include:

  1. Headaches

  2. Dizziness

  3. Coordination problems

  4. Neck Pain

  5. Fatigue

  6. Trouble concentrating

  7. Irritability

  8. Slow reaction time

  9. Light sensitivity

  10. Sound sensitivity

  11. Anxiety

  12. Insomnia

  13. Sleep disorders

  14. Memory loss

  15. Depression

The most commonly reported PCS for metabolic malfunctions include:

  1. Food sensitivities

  2. Digestive conditions; leaky gut

  3. Hormonal abnormalities

  4. Blood sugar problems

  5. Autoimmunity

Although these symptoms often resolve within a short period of time, it can sometimes persist for months and even years following injury. If you experience these symptoms for a long period of time, it is called persistent PCS or post concussion syndrome.

As you can imagine, post-concussion syndrome can impact your quality of life in several ways. Symptoms such as reduced concentration and memory problems may be unfavourable for your performance at school or work and your personal relationships with family and friends may be negatively impacted by irritability, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Luckily, there are treatment options available to help you recover.

Treatment Options

Physiotherapy and balance training can help with many physical symptoms, but the cognitive symptoms may not be addressed. For years, it was believed that the only method to treat concussions was through medication but that is not the case anymore. Medication may relieve symptoms associated with metabolic malfunctions but it is not a permanent solution for circuit malfunction symptoms. As mentioned in our previous blog posts, non-invasive treatments are available for concussions including post-concussion syndrome.

Z-score neurofeedback is a non-invasive method used to train the brain to be more relaxed, calm, alert, and focused. Multiple areas of the brain are trained at the same time with the help of a 19 electrode cap that is placed on your head. Stay tuned for our next blog post to learn more about how Z-score neurofeedback may help you overcome your persistent concussion symptoms. For more on concussions visit https://www.neuropotentialclinics.com/concussion


Center, T. T. (2017, September 29). Retrieved June 20, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdUd-8sKdGg

Cooke, J., & Zacko, J. C. (2014). Post-concussion Syndrome, Persistent Symptomatic Concussion, Related Sequelae, and Treatment of Mild Closed Head Injury. Concussions in Athletics, 393-406. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-0295-8_22

Ryan, L. M., & Warden, D. L. (2003). Post concussion syndrome. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(4), 310-316. doi:10.1080/09540260310001606692

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Neuropotential Clinics20 De Boers Dr, Suite 230
North York,ON, M3J 0H1

T: (416) 398-9991; F:(416) 398-9992