Operant Conditioning

What is Operant Conditioning?

Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. It was coined by American Psychologist, B.F. Skinner who believed we should only focus on the external, observable causes of human behavior.

Skinner’s theory was heavily influenced by Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect which states that actions followed by pleasant consequences are likely to be repeated, whereas actions followed by unpleasant consequences are less likely to be repeated. Essentially, operant conditioning has a similar premise as actions followed by positive reinforcers are strengthened and will likely occur again.

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

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