What are Brainwaves?

The human brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are electrically excitable cells that communicate with other cells through connections called synapses. When these neurons are communicating, they form synchronized electrical pulses which produce brainwaves.

Brainwaves are patterns of electrical activity that occur in the brain and different brainwaves have different frequencies (slow, fast, etc). The frequency of a brainwave helps us tell one brainwave pattern apart from another. Brainwave frequencies are measured in Hertz (Hz) which looks at how many cycles of a brainwave pattern occur each second. For example, a 1 Hz wave means there is only one wave occurring each one second, while a 20 Hz wave means there are 20 waves occurring in one second. Therefore, delta waves (0.5-3.5 Hz) are much slower than beta waves (13-38 Hz).

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

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