Mindfulness: Do Mindful People Feel Less Pain?

download (6)-min.jpg

Mindfulness vs. Pain Sensitivity

Have you ever wondered why some people feel pain more intensely than others? Are you one of those people who rarely ever feel pain? Well, researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine in North Carolina have found that mindfulness may be the reason behind this. According to the Canadian Medical Association, mindfulness is described as being able to attend to an experience such as a conversation, a clinical procedure or an administrative activity without being distracted, hurried or reactive in a way that compromises our understanding, decision making, caring and skillful actions. In simpler terms, it means to pay attention to the present moment without having a highly emotional reaction.

Fadel Zeidan, the study’s lead author and Assistant Professor of Neurobiology and Anatomy at Wake Forest School of Medicine, attempted to find out whether an individual’s innate mindfulness level was correlated with lower pain sensitivity. In addition, he sought to identify the brain mechanisms involved in lower pain sensitivity.

Research Study

The study involved 76 volunteers who were deemed as healthy individuals. To ensure that an accurate level of dispositional mindfulness was being measured, it was imperative that the volunteers never meditated before. Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory was used to measure each participant’s baseline mindfulness level. Once the baseline levels were determined, the volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while being administered with painful heat stimulation (120°F, 49°C).

From this experiment, whole brain analyses showed that administering painful heat stimulation to those with higher dispositional mindfulness had greater deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex and experienced less pain. In contrast, participant’s who reported higher pain revealed greater activation of the posterior cingulate cortex. While there is uncertainty regarding the function of this brain region, the posterior cingulate cortex is a central node of the default mode network (DMN). The DMN is associated with mind-wandering as well as processing feelings of oneself. Essentially, the DMN deactivates when a task, such as reading or writing is being performed. It is then reactivated when a person puts an end to a task and returns to self-related thoughts, emotions, and feelings.

Outcomes and Impact

The data indicated that there was less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex of the DMN for people with higher dispositional mindfulness ratings, which allowed them to experience less pain. Those with lower dispositional mindfulness ratings had higher activation of the posterior cingulate cortex and felt more pain. Thus, lead author Fadel Zeidan stated that “mindful individuals are seemingly less caught up in the experience of pain, which was associated with lower pain reports."

Millions of people suffer from chronic pain and the information gathered from this study is quite useful as we can now target the posterior cingulate cortex for the development of pain therapies. Further, mindfulness can be taken into consideration when understanding why one feels more or less pain. If you or anyone you know suffers with chronic pain, consult a healthcare professional about mindfulness meditation.

References

Leech, R., Braga, R., & Sharp, D. J. (2012). Echoes of the Brain within the Posterior Cingulate Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(1), 215-222. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3689-11.2012

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-09-mindful-people-pain-mri-imaging.html?utm_source=tabs&utm_medium=link&utm_campaign=story-tabs

https://www.cma.ca/Assets/assets-library/document/en/practice-management-and-wellness/Mindfulness-sessions-Introduction-e.pdf

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller

Dr. M. Arnold Muller is a licensed School and Clinical Psychologist currently based in Toronto, Ontario, with 31 years of practice experience in two countries. Prior to his time in Canada, he spent the first half of his career in South Africa. Dr. Muller has a Ph.D. with specialization in Psychotherapy from the University of Pretoria, and a Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology. He also has a second Masters Degree in Practical Theology from the University of Stellenbosch.

Dr. Muller has worked in many settings including school boards, addiction centres, correctional institutions, the military, churches, and private practices. Spending time in these organizations has allowed him to gain an astounding amount of experience in psychological assessment, diagnosis, and treatment plan preparation and application.

Dr. Muller also has training and exposure to Neurofeedback Training, Somatic Experiencing, crisis intervention, conflict resolution and managing cultural differences. In his spare time, you can find him hiking, travelling, working on his photography, poetry, and spending time with his family and friends.

Neuropotential Clinics20 De Boers Dr, Suite 230
North York,ON, M3J 0H1

T: (416) 398-9991; F:(416) 398-9992